acm - an acm publication

2006 - September

  • VLSI Algorithms and architectures for JPEG2000
    In this paper, we presented VLSI algorithms and architectures for JPEG2000. JPEG2000 is the new standard for image compression. We briefly described the core algorithms for JPEG2000 standard and its several features desirable in many interactive multimedia applications. The core compression algorithm has three major components - discrete wavelet transform (DWT), fractional bit plane coding (BPC), and context adaptive binary arithmetic coding. DWT and BPC are very computationally, as well as memory expensive operations. As a result, special purpose VLSI implementations of these algorithms are desirable for many devices to compress large size images in real time. Traditionally, the DWT is realized by convolution based finite impulse response (FIR) filtering techniques. However, Lifting based implementation of DWT is found to be computationally efficient and suitable for VLSI implementations. The basic principle behind the lifting based scheme is to decompose the finite impulse response filters in wavelet transform into a finite sequence of simple filtering steps. Lifting based DWT implementation have been recommended in JPEG2000 standard. Consequently, this has become an area of active research and several architectures have been proposed in recent years. In this paper, we reviewed some of the key lifting architectures suitable for VLSI implementation. The embedded block coding with optimized truncation (EBCOT) algorithm has been adopted for computation of BPC in JPEG2000. This algorithm is complex and inefficient to implement in a general purpose machine. We have described a special purpose architecture suitable for VLSI implementation of EBCOT algorithm. We also reviewed some elegant architectures in the literature which exploit the underlying data and computational parallelism inherent in the EBCOT algorithms. We also presented a top-level systems architecture for VLSI implementation of the JPEG2000 standard.
  • State of the art smart spaces: application models and software infrastructure
    Smart spaces are ordinary environments equipped with visual and audio sensing systems, pervasive devices, sensors, and networks that can perceive and react to people, sense ongoing human activities and respond to them. Their ubiquity is evident by the fact that various state of the art smart spaces have been incorporated in all situations of our life. These smart space elements require middleware, standards and interfacing technologies to manage complex interactions between them. Here, we present an overview of the technologies integrated to build Smart Spaces, review the various scenarios in which Smart Spaces have been incorporated by researchers, highlight the requirements of software infrastructure for programming and networking them, and mention the contemporary frameworks for interaction with them.